About Biofuel Indonesia | 18/02/2019
Biofuel is a renewable energy source that are produced from recently living organisms or their byproducts. The term itself is most commonly used to refer to liquid biofuels. They are fuels developed from specifically grown agricultural products.
Before World War II, biofuels were seen as providing an alternative to imported oil in European countries. After the war, cheap Middle Eastern oil lessened interest in biofuels. But since the 21st century, rising oil prices, concerns over the potential oil peak, global warming, and instability in the Middle East are pushing renewed interest in biofuels.
Indonesia's rich biodiversity and vast potential for development of the bioenergy utilization, together with the integrated strategy and incentives for investment developed by the government, favorably position the country to maximise the promise of sustainable long-term returns from the biofuel economy.
Origin og Biofuel
The most common types of biofuel are originated from specifically grown agricultural products. This include:
- Corn and Soybeans, primarily in the United States;
- Flaxseed and Rapeseed, primarily in Europe;
- Sugar Cane in Brazil;
- Palm Oil in South-East Asia;
- Jatropha Curcas, primarily in India.
Biofuel can also come from biodegradable outputs from industry, agriculture, forestry and households. This include straw, timber, manure, rice husks, sewage, biodegradable waste, and food leftovers. They are converted to biogas through anaerobic digestion. Biomass used as fuel often consists of underutilized types, like chaff and animal waste.
Indonesia is currently focusing on developing Liquid Biofuel derived from Jatropha Curcas, Palm Oil, and Sugar Cane.
1. Biodiesel & Green Diesel
Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced locally, thus helping to reduce Indonesia's dependence on imported crude. The processed biodiesel fuel is derived from Palm Oil, Jatropha Curcas, Coconut Oil, or Soybean Oil.
Biodiesel can be readily used in diesel-engine vehicles either as a substitue for Diesel, or as an additive. It provides power similar to that produced by conventional diesel fuel.
Bioethanol comes from anhydrous alcohol produced from the fermentation of sugar cane, cassava, or corn. Green Diesel is a blend of Plantation Oil and Crude Oil, processed in an oil refinery without adding methanol. The processed bioethanol fuel can be utilized for transportation vehicles as an additive to fuel, up to 15% of total composition without the need for any special equipment.
3. Pure Plant Oil (PPO) & Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)
Pure Plant Oil and Straight Vegetable Oil are those that has not undergone chemical change from its original characteristics. Palm Oil, Straight Jatropha Oil (SJO) and Soybean Oil can all be used as an additive for Diesel fuel (15% PPO, 85% Diesel) without needing any special equipment. However, with the use of convertor, PPO can be used to purely replace Diesel fuel (up to 100% of the composition), resulting in discontinue need for Diesel fuel.
PPO can also be used to replace Kerosene (20% PPO, 80% Diesel) and Marine Fuel Oil (up to 100% PPO without special equipment).